Why does antibiotic treatment fail?

Why does antibiotic treatment fail?

  1. The antibiotic may not besuitable for treating the microbe; for example, using ampicillin in treatingmycoplasma disease. Mycoplasma is not affected by any antibiotic from thisgroup (because this group destroys the microbe’s wall, while mycoplasma doesnot have a cell wall).
  2. Antagonism betweenantibodies and vaccines.
  3. The inability of theantibiotic to reach the site of the infection; due to chemical orpharmacological reasons related to the antibiotic or due to the presence ofother obstacles, such as pus or dead tissue. This occurs in mycoplasma, wherepus collects on the lungs, heart, and liver.
  4. Using an antibioticincorrectly, such as using an antibiotic that is not absorbed in the case of asystemic infection, such as (coryza).
  5. Using an antibiotic that ispoorly stored or has expired. In this case, the antibiotic may lose itseffectiveness and turn into a toxic compound, such as (tetracycline).
  6. Using an incorrectantibiotic in terms of composition and type.
  7. Using an antibiotic withanother chemical compound: The presence of some disinfectants in drinkingwater, such as oxidizing disinfectants from the chlorine and iodine groups,which spoil most of the antibiotics, or the presence of high levels of salts thatmay precipitate the antibiotics.
  8. High water temperaturesspoil many antibiotics that are affected by heat.
  9. Vaccination fails if thedose and duration are incorrect.

Principles of choosing antibiotics

Factors related to the microbe:

  • Conducting a sensitivity test: It is considered one of thefoundations of choosing an antibiotic, in which we learn which antibiotics areeffective against the microbe causing the disease, and this leads to successfultreatment and saving costs.

Factors related to the antibiotic:

  • The characteristics of the antibiotic must be known, suchas its absorption into the blood, its arrival at the sites of infection in therequired concentrations, and its continued presence in those places forappropriate periods to eliminate the cause of the disease.
  • The duration of antibiotic treatment lasts from 3-5 days.
  • The type of antibiotic, whether it kills bacteria orinhibits bacterial growth.

Bird-related factors:

  • The antibiotic is chosen based on the immune status of thebirds. It either kills the microbe or only stops its growth. This requires thatthe immune status of the birds to be high, as their immunity is what controlsand eliminates the microbe whose growth has been stopped by the antibiotics.

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